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Let's do some exercise(duh!)
Ok so lie on the bed. Lift your left leg. Put it down. Lift your right leg.Put it down. Easy?
Now lift your left leg and without putting it down, lift your right leg. Easy ? No.
Now try to lift both the legs together. Easy ? No.
My question : What is the anatomical reason ( arrangement of muscles around the bones etc.) which makes it difficult ?
I suspect it is just physics. Each of your legs makes up about 1/6 of body mass, leaving about 2/3 of your mass superior to your hips.
Raising one leg requires action of the hip flexors (i.e., iliopsoas complex) but also activity in the anterior abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, obliques) and back muscles to stabilize your abdomen. To raise the other leg simultaneously, you recruit the ipsilateral hip flexors. But, importantly, you probably have already maximally recruited most of your abdominal and back muscles.
Imagine the body as a lever system. With one leg raised, you have 1/6 of body mass balanced against 2/3. With both legs up, you have 1/3 vs. 2/3 and with potentially increased torque, because your legs are long (a force acting at a larger distance). The muscle forces to stabilize that must be larger, but the additional muscles are not there.
I can raise both legs with difficulty (admittedly, $n=1$).
How to Sit Like a Lady
This article was co-authored by Tami Claytor. Tami Claytor is an Etiquette Coach, Image Consultant, and the Owner of Always Appropriate Image and Etiquette Consulting in New York, New York. With over 20 years of experience, Tami specializes in teaching etiquette classes to individuals, students, companies, and community organizations. Tami has spent decades studying cultures through her extensive travels across five continents and has created cultural diversity workshops to promote social justice and cross-cultural awareness. She holds a BA in Economics with a concentration in International Relations from Clark University. Tami studied at the Ophelia DeVore School of Charm and the Fashion Institute of Technology, where she earned her Image Consultant Certification.
wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, several readers have written to tell us that this article was helpful to them, earning it our reader-approved status.
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Traditional etiquette dictates that women sit with an erect posture and both legs together, keeping the skirt's hem low and undergarments out of sight. Maintaining this posture when in trousers also adds elegance. Additionally, there are ways of crossing your legs, appropriate for formal occasions, which effectively prevent wardrobe malfunctions. Practicing these postures will add an element of class while becoming seated at formal affairs and in day-to-day life.
3 of 6
Symptoms make it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep
A substantial number of people who have RLS also have periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). PLMS are repetitive movements that occur every 20 to 30 seconds on and off throughout the night and can cause partial awakenings that disrupt sleep.
If you feel like these symptoms or others make it hard to fall or stay asleep, you're not alone&mdashit's often one of the chief complaints among people with restless legs syndrome.
It's not, however, one of the four criteria necessary for diagnosis. (Although doctors may use it to support a diagnosis.)
10 Sex Positions for Super-Deep Penetration
Has your partner ever asked you to "go deeper" during sex? Deep penetration can feel reeeally good for everyone involved. She gets the intense (and pleasurable) sensation of feeling "full"&mdashand maybe even a little g-spot action&mdashand you get stimulation along your entire shaft.
There&rsquos also the psychological arousal that comes from deep penetration: There&rsquos something undeniably hot about being deep inside of a person. It sort of feels like your two bodies are melding into one, which can create a deep (pun intended) sense of intimacy. And everybody wants more intimacy! Certain sex positions lend themselves far better to deep vaginal penetration. So if your partner asks you to &ldquogo deeper,&rdquo it's probably time to whip out one (or more!) of these 10 sex positions.
In this position, she sits on her heels and then leans forward. While remaining on her haunches, she extends her hands forward all the while, her back remains straight. This variation of doggy style grants you full access to her vagina. (If she has a bigger butt, you may need to spread her cheeks to allow for deep penetration.)
Have her lie face down on the bed with her knees slightly bent and hips slightly raised. For comfort, and to increase the angle of her hips, you can place a pillow under her lower abs. From here, enter her from behind and keep your weight off of her by propping yourself up with your arms. (Or if she likes the feeling of your weight, grab her by the hips and thrust from there). This position, in my humble opinion, is the best position for deep penetration. For the man, it feels incredible&mdashso incredible, in fact, that you&rsquore likely to orgasm quickly.
While she&rsquos lying on her back, have her raise her bent legs into the air. Her legs should be slightly past shoulder-length apart, and for this pose to really work, she needs to grip the soles of her feet with her hands. Happy Baby Pose not only allows for deeper penetration, it&rsquos also an ideal position if you want to engage her clitoris too. With one hand you can stimulate her clitoris, and with your other free hand, you can hold onto her for support.
While she&rsquos on her back, have her drape her legs on your shoulders. The angle of her body should be roughly 90 degrees. The legs on shoulders move should be considered a staple, as it allows for deep vaginal penetration. If standard &ldquolegs over shoulders&rdquo isn&rsquot doing anything for her, try grabbing her butt and tilting her pelvis upward, slightly toward you. As always, ask her what feels best, but a small tweak can be the difference between her not orgasming and orgasming within minutes.
The Pearly Gates isn&rsquot a popular sex position, even though it requires little strength and flexibility as far as sex positions go. While you&rsquore lying flat on your back, have your partner lie on top of you her back should be on your chest. Then you can thrust up and into her. This position can hit her G-spot because most penises, when erect, aren&rsquot at a 90-degree angle to the body most tilt upwards. The position works with your penis&rsquo natural curvature, allowing you to penetrate deeper. From this position, it&rsquos also easy for either you or your partner to stimulate her clitoris.
Kneel and straddle her left leg while she&rsquos lying on her left side. From here, she should bend her right leg around the right side of your waist, allowing full access to her vulva. From here, you can really angle yourself deep inside of her. If you push her upright leg back, there really is no limit to how deep you can go.
You should be seated upright at the end of the bed. Then have your partner get into position with her hands firmly planted on the floor in front of her. Grab your partner by her hips, position her vagina over your penis, and then begin penetrating. This position could be slightly strenuous for your partner, but you can help her by holding most of her weight. She shouldn&rsquot be fully supporting herself on her hands&mdashher hands should only be used to steady herself.
While you&rsquore both lying on your sides, effectively spooning, enter her from behind. To increase intensity, you can wrap your arms around her, holding her tightly. If for some reason you're noticing that you&rsquore unable to penetrate her deeply, lean away from her. This allows you to reposition yourself to an angle where you can penetrate her more deeply.
Stand at the edge of a bed or desk while she lies back and raises her legs to her chest. Her knees are bent as if she's doing a "bicycling" exercise. Grab her ankles and enter her. Since this position allows for really deep penetration, make sure she&rsquos warmed up, turned on, and well-lubricated before going all-in. You can also place her legs over your shoulders.
Last but certainly not least is classic missionary. In this staple, your partner lies on her back, and you crawl on top of her, facing her. From there, you can easily penetrate your partner. Not only does this position allow for deep penetration, it&rsquos also a somewhat intimate position, since you can kiss and make sustained eye contact while having sex. You know what they say, &ldquoIf ain&rsquot broke, don&rsquot fix it.&rdquo If this position is working for you and your partner, then keep at it.
When moving a patient in bed, perform a patient risk assessment prior to the procedure to determine the level of assistance needed for optimal patient care. If a patient is unable to assist with repositioning in bed, follow agency policy regarding “no patient lifts” and the use of mechanical lifts for complex and bariatric patients. See Checklist 25 for the steps to move a patient up in bed.
Disclaimer: Always review and follow your hospital policy regarding this specific skill.
- Check room for contact precautions.
- Introduce yourself to patient.
- Confirm patient ID using two patient identifiers (e.g., name and date of birth).
- Listen and attend to patient cues.
- Ensure patient’s privacy and dignity.
- Assess ABCCS/suction/oxygen/safety.
- Ensure tubes and attachments are properly placed prior to the procedure to prevent accidental removal.
- Ensure patient has a draw sheet or a friction-reducing sheet on the bed prior to repositioning.
1. Make sure an additional health care provider is available to help with the move.
2. Explain to the patient what will happen and how the patient can help.
Doing this provides the patient with an opportunity to ask questions and help with the positioning.
3. Complete risk assessment (Checklist 24) of patient’s ability to help with the positioning.
This step prevents injury to patient and health care provider.
4. Raise bed to safe working height and ensure that brakes are applied. Health care providers stand on each side of the bed.
Principles of proper body mechanics help prevent MSI.
Safe working height is at waist level for the shortest health care provider.
5. Lay patient supine place pillow at the head of the bed and against the headboard.
6. Stand between shoulders and hips of patient, feet shoulder width apart. Weight will be shifted from back foot to front foot.
7. Fan-fold the draw sheet toward the patient with palms facing up.
8. Ask patient to tilt head toward chest, fold arms across chest, and bend knees to assist with the movement. Let the patient know when the move will happen.
9. Tighten your gluteal and abdominal muscles, bend your knees, and keep back straight and neutral.
10. On the count of three by the lead person, gently slide (not lift) the patient up the bed, shifting your weight from the back foot to the front, keeping back straight with knees slightly bent.
The principles of proper body mechanics help prevent injury.
11. Replace pillow under head, position patient in bed, and cover with sheets.
12. Lower bed, raise side rails as required, and ensure call bell is within reach. Perform hand hygiene.
Bed in lowest position, side rail up, call bell within reach
Watch these three videos for more information about how to move a patient up in bed.
Proper Body Alignment
Knowing how to move, sit and stand properly can help you stay active and prevent broken bones and disability. Proper posture can also help to limit the amount of kyphosis, or forward curve of the upper back, that can result from broken bones in the spine.
One of the most important things about body mechanics and posture is alignment. Alignment refers to how the head, shoulders, spine, hips, knees and ankles relate and line up with each other. Proper alignment of the body puts less stress on the spine and helps you have good posture.
To keep proper alignment, avoid the following positions or movements:
- Having a slumped, head-forward posture
- Bending forward from the waist
- Twisting of the spine to a point of strain
- Twisting the trunk and bending forward when doing activities such as coughing, sneezing, vacuuming or lifting
- Anything that requires you to reach far. An example is reaching up for an item on a high shelf, which also could cause you to lose your balance and fall.
Some exercises can do more harm than good. If you have osteoporosis or have had broken bones in the spine, you should avoid exercises that involve bending over from the waist. Some examples include:
Many exercises and activities such as yoga, Pilates, tennis and golf may need to be avoided or modified because they often involve twisting and bending motions. Bending forward during routine activities also puts stress on the spine and can increase the chance of breaking a bone in the spine. While bending forward puts strain on the spine, it is usually safer if you’re able to keep your back flat.
- When sitting in a chair, try to keep your hips and knees at the same level. Place your feet flat on the floor. Keep a comfortable posture. You should have a natural inward curve to your lower back and a tall, upright upper back.
- When sitting in bucket seats or soft couches or chairs, use a rolled up towel or pillow to support your lower back.
- When standing up from a chair, move your hips forward to the front of the chair, and use your leg muscles to lift yourself up.
- When driving, use the head rest.
- When tying your shoes or drying your feet, sit in a chair. Place one foot on a footstool, box or on your other leg. Lean forward at the hips to tie or dry. Do not bend over or slouch through your upper back. Keep the natural curve of your lower back and a straight upper back.
- When reading, do not lean or slump over. Set your reading material on a desk, table or on pillows on your lap.
- When sitting at a desk, prop up a clipboard so it slants toward you, like a drafting table.
- Use a footstool or footrest when seated for long periods of time.
- For relief after sitting for a while, do some of the Bone Healthy Exercises
- Keep your head high, chin in and shoulder blades slightly pinched together.
- Maintain the natural arch of your lower back as you flatten your abdomen by gently pulling it in.
- Point your feet straight ahead with your knees facing forward.
- While standing in one place for more than a few minutes, put one foot up on a stool or in an open cabinet (if you are in the kitchen). Switch to the other foot every so often. You’ll find this much less tiring for your back and legs.
- Use the stairs for exercise and to help with your bone density, but only if your healthcare provider says it’s safe for you. Build up gradually with this exercise.
- Keep your head high, chin in, shoulder blades slightly pinched together and abdomen gently pulled in.
- Keep your feet pointed straight ahead, not to one side. Your knees should face forward. Keep your knees slightly bent.
- Instead of putting one foot directly in front of the other, keep your feet a few inches apart, lined up under the hip on the same side.
- For safety, hold the rail while going up and down but try to avoid pulling yourself up by the railing.
- Be especially cautious going downstairs. A fall down the stairs could cause severe injuries.
Bending and Turning
- Keep your feet flat and about shoulder-width apart from one another.
- Let both upper arms touch your ribs on the sides, unless you’re using one hand for support.
- As you bend, keep your back upright and straight and your shoulder blades pinched together.
- Bend only at the knees and hips. Do not bend over at the waist since this will put your upper back into a rounded position which can cause broken bones in the spine.
- Even when standing to brush your teeth or to wash the dishes, try not to bend over at the waist. Instead, bend at the knees and hips while keeping your back straight.
- When changing the direction you’re facing, move your feet with your body. Do not twist the spine. Pivot on your heels or toes with your knees slightly bent. Keep nose, knees, and toes pointing in the same direction.
Lifting and Carrying
- Don’t lift or carry objects, packages or babies weighing more than 10 pounds. If you are unsure about how much you can lift, check with your healthcare provider, especially a physical therapist.
- If you do pick up a heavy object, never bend way over so that your back is parallel to the ground. This places a great deal of strain on your back.
- To lift an object off the floor, first kneel on one knee. Place one hand on a table or stable chair for support if you need it.
- Bring the object close to your body at waist level. Gently pull your abdomen in to support your back and breathe out when you are lifting an object or straightening up. Do not hold your breath. Stand using your leg and thigh muscles.
- When carrying groceries, ask to have your bags packed lightly. Divide heavy items into separate bags. Always hold bags close to your body. Try to balance the load by carrying the same amount in each hand.
- When unpacking, place bags on a chair or table rather than on a high counter or floor. This prevents unnecessary lifting and twisting of the spine.
- Instead of carrying a heavy pocketbook or purse, consider wearing a fanny pack.
Pushing and Pulling
- When you vacuum, rake, sweep or mop, keep your feet apart with one foot in front of the other. Always face your work directly to keep from twisting your back.
- Shift your weight from foot-to-foot in a rocking movement. With knees bent and shoulder blades pinched, move forward and back, or from side to side rhythmically.
- Do not bend forward from the waist.
Coughing and Sneezing
- Develop the habit of supporting your back with one hand whenever you cough or sneeze.
- Place your hand behind your back or on your thigh. This protects the spine from injury caused by a sudden bend forward.
Getting into Bed
- First, sit down on the side of the bed.
- Lean toward the head of the bed while supporting your body with both hands.
- Then lie down on your side, bringing both feet up onto the bed at the same time.
- Keep your knees bent and arms in front of you. Then roll onto your back in one motion.
- Pull your abdomen in as you roll to support your back and to help prevent twisting.
- Keep nose, knees and toes pointing in the same direction.
- Do not lift your head and upper back to move in bed. This puts a great deal of strain on your spine and could cause broken bones.
Lying Down and Getting Out of Bed
- When lying on your side in bed, use one pillow between your knees and one under your head to keep your spine aligned and increase your comfort.
- When lying on your back in bed, use one or two pillows under your knees and one under your head. Try to avoid using extra pillows to prop your head and upper back since this will put you into a rounded upper back position. But, if you have a rounded upper back posture with a forward head, you may need two pillows to support your neck comfortably.
When getting out of bed, reverse the steps you used to get into bed (above):
- Keep both arms in front of you.
- Pull your abdomen in and breathe as you roll onto your side.
- Keep your abdomen pulled in and use your hand to raise your upper body as you carefully place your legs over the side of the bed in one motion.
- Sit on the edge of the bed for a moment or two before you stand up.
- When on your back, never lift your head and upper back to sit up in bed or get out of bed.
Download Protecting Your Fragile Spine. Learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of spine fractures and take steps to prevent these fractures from occurring in the first place or from happening again.
Production of this resource was made possible through an unrestricted educational grant from Orthovita®. Orthovita® has created an educational resource for the public about the treatment of spinal fractures.
The Best Positions For Adventurous Women
Boredom in bed happens to even the happiest couples, so deciding to change things up is nothing to ever be ashamed about. Whether you decide to introduce a new toy, or maybe it's time to finally stretch and try out that bendy position you've been reading about, experimenting in the bedroom occasionally can never hurt (unless you both want it to). And if you're the adventurous type of person who spends most of her days trying new things, unafraid of challenge, then chances are this thrill-seeking vibe you've got going on translates over to the bedroom. Sure, missionary is great. but you're often looking for something more intense.
And if your partner is just as up for the challenge as you are, you two are probably looking for some new moves that'll take your nights between the sheets to the next level. And luckily, there are a ton amazing positions to turn up the difficulty and intensity for the both of you. It might take practice, but as an adventurous woman you know that no good thing comes easily. And once you do master these moves, it'll be hard to believe you were ever content keeping things vanilla in the first place.
1. The Butterfly
How you do it: While he's standing at the edge of the bed, scoot yourself down and allow him to grab a hold of your hips. Then, place your legs on either side of his head, while he thrusts inside. It takes a bit of getting used to, especially if your partner is tall and your legs can't quite comfortably rest near his neck. But with more practice, you'll be able to keep your legs nice and straight for an added level of intensity.
Why it's great: Men love this move because it gives them a great view. It also allows for deeper penetration, which can be ah-maz-ing for the two of you.
2. Kneeling Reach-Around
How to do it: Try this variation on doggy style. Getting on your hands and knees, allow your partner to kneel behind you and press her body against yours. From this angle, she has easier access to your clitoris to either stimulate with her fingers, or a toy. She can also caress you from here in any way you two choose.
Why it's great: The varied angle and the closeness this move allows adds another level of intensity that feels so much better than when you're going solo.
3. Standing Rear Entry
How it works: It's time to get bendy again. For this, allow your partner to stand straight behind you, while you bend over and spread your legs slightly apart for easier entry. Once your partner is inside of you, bring your legs closer together for heightened sensation, and try to lay your hands down flat on the floor. If you guys have a substantial height difference, you can always stand on a stool, while he holds your hips to help you keep balance.
Why it's great: If you're a G-spot kind of girl, this is definitely the move for you. Aside from the great stretch you'll get while working this one out, it's the perfect angle for deep penetration, and G-spot stim. He'll also love it because having your legs closer together makes for a tighter fit.
4. The Advanced Crab Walk
How it works: So you guys are ready for some Kama Sutra-style classics? Have your partner sit down with his legs bent, and arms planted behind him. Then, lower yourself down on top of him, anchoring your arms behind you. Slowly, put one leg at a time on his shoulders. Since thrusting isn't really an option for this one, focus on a grinding motion, using your ankles for added leverage.
Why it's great: If you're looking for things to last a big longer, than this is a great one. By keeping your legs closer together, you make for a tighter fit, adding intensity for the two of you. Did I mention the view from there is pretty damn hot, too?
5. 'Weak In The Knees'
How to do it: For some serious clit stimulation with your partner, have her lay flat on her back. Then, stand over her with each leg on either side of her head, lowering yourself slowly down until your clitoris is hovering above her mouth. You can keep this one as classic oral, or add some touching or vibration for added sensation.
Why it's great: From this position, your partner's hands are free to caress you, or add a toy into the mix.
6. X Marks The Spot
How it works: Lay flat on the bed or a sturdy table, and move yourself over to the edge, where your partner will be standing. As he enters you, raise your legs into the air near his shoulders. From here he should grab your legs, and cross them. You can either rest your ankles near his shoulders if that's comfortable for you, or allow him to hold your legs.
Why it's great: Your friend the G-spot will get some serious love in this position, not to mention the tighter fit is sure to make him happy.
7. The Lotus
How it works: Have him sit with his legs crossed in a butterfly position, while you wrap your legs around his waist and lower yourself on top. Wrap your arms around each other, and focus on grinding motions because thrusting is a little challenging here.
Why it's great: If you can get the right angle, grinding your clit against his abdomen will be great for added stimulation. Plus the close proximity adds another level of skin-on-skin contact both romantic, and intimate.
8. The Sideways Straddle
How it works: This one is definitely not an easy one, but practice makes perfect! Have him lie down flat on his back, then lower yourself down over him, but facing away from him. For this, you're going to need to straddle one of his legs, so place one of your legs between the two of his, and the other on the outside of his body. Getting onto your knees, guide his penis inside of you and have him bend one knee up. Once you're fully in this position (which may take some necessary adjustment), focus on a grinding motion against his leg to hit your clit in all the right places.
Why it's great: The sense of satisfaction alone you'll get from mastering something like this will be awesome. But even better than that is the fact that this move is amazing for clit stim, allowing you to control the pace and pressure.
Want more of Bustle's Sex and Relationships coverage? Check out our video on sex positions for small penises:
How to Perform Legs Up The Wall Pose
- Begin by sitting on the floor with a wall next to your side. Your legs should be stretched out straight in front of you. Exhale and gently lie down on your back, engage your core and hip muscles to bring your legs up into the air with the bottoms of your feet pointing to the ceiling.
- Pivot your body so the backs of your legs are now touching the wall. Bring your sitting bones flush to the ground and as close to the wall as possible so your torso and legs create a 90-degree angle.
- Relax your neck and place your hands on your belly or to your sides with palms facing up. Focus on your breathing and with each breath release any stress or anxiety, starting from your feet and down through your body.
- Stay in the Legs Up the Wall Pose for five to 20 minutes. To come out of the pose, gently press the bottoms of your feet into the wall and roll to one side, making sure you support your legs until they reach the ground. Stay on the ground for a few seconds until sitting up so as to avoid lightheadedness.
- The Legs Up the Wall Pose is often a final pose in a yoga sequence and can be used in lieu of the Corpse Pose.
Potential Health Benefits
- Provides anxiety and stress relief
- Therapeutic relief for, headaches, arthritis, high blood pressure, low blood pressure
- Relieves menstrual and menopause symptoms
- Stretches hip and leg muscles including hamstrings and calves
- Relieves swelling, cramping and fatigue in legs and feet
- Relieves lower back pain
Researchers used an eight-week yoga study to see the effects of yoga on fibromyalgia, a chronic condition characterized by pain, stiffness, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. The yoga poses performed by the participants were chosen based on simplicity, one of which was the Legs Up the Wall Pose. The preliminary study of 11 participants found a significant improvement in overall health and a decrease in anxiety and stiffness. Results from the study were published in the International Journal of Yoga Therapy and suggest using yoga, including the Legs Up the Wall Pose, can provide relief for those experiencing fibromyalgia and may possibly relieve other health issues such as anxiety and stress.
Modifications & Variations
Performing the Legs Up the Wall Pose can strain your lower back and hips. You can place a pillow or a rolled-up yoga mat or towel under your lower back to relieve excess strain. You can also place a pillow or mat for support under your head. A strap can be used just around your thighs and above the knees to help hold legs in place and take pressure off the low back and pelvis.
If you are a beginner, focus on using your breath to help “ground” your body as well as relieve excess stress. On each inhale, imagine your breath is moving through your torso and pressing your thighs closer to the wall. On each exhale, imagine your thighs connected to the wall as your let your torso release any tension into the floor.
Advanced practitioners can do two modified versions of the pose. One is to place a sandbag on the soles of your feet to aid in stretching and balance. To place the sandbag on the soles of your feet after you are in the pose, bend your knees slightly and bring your heels down along the wall. Place the sandbag on your soles and press it toward the ceiling through your legs and feet until the backs of your thighs are on the wall.
A second advanced variation is to let your feet fall outward so your legs make a “V” shape. This variation provides a stretch to the inner thighs and groin muscles of the legs.
Be careful when lifting your legs to the upright position if you have lower back or hip pain. One way to relieve excess strain on the lower back is to use a rolled-up yoga mat, towel or pillow.
Like any inversion, people with glaucoma should avoid this pose. In some yoga practices, doing this inversion while menstruating is not advised. Do not do this if you have a hernia of any kind. Also, if you have high or low blood pressure, be careful when performing this pose for extended periods of time or avoid it altogether. Lifting your legs higher than your heart can increase blood pressure and lead to heart and other health problems. The same warning is also suggested after completion of the pose when you transition from lying to the standing position. Standing suddenly can cause blood pressure fluctuations which can lead to serious injury.
Reviewed by: James Nicolai, M.D., on August 20th, 2013.
Hennard, Janet. “A protocol and pilot study for managing fibromyalgia with yoga and meditation.” International journal of yoga therapy 21, no. 1 (2011): 109-121.
Is Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Related To Restless Leg Syndrome?
Sufferers of PLMS may also experience some of the same symptoms of RLS like burning, tingling sensations or general discomfort in their legs when they lay down to rest. Not everyone who has PLMS has RLS however, about 80% of people who suffer from RLS also suffer from PLMS.
Often ones bed partner will be more aware of the movements than the sufferer is. Many times when one suffers from PLMS, they may not fully awaken from the movements, although it does disrupt their sleep. Additionally, one may find they frequently wake up just as they are falling asleep and not know what work them, as the leg movements usually last only a few seconds.
These movements will often occur in the first stage of your sleep cycle, before REM sleep. REM sleep is the “dream cycle” of sleep it is also the episode in which one obtains their most restful sleep. Constant disruptions of the sleep cycle can keep one from attaining REM sleep, leaving a person unrested in the morning. During the REM sleep cycle a persons voluntary muscles are paralyzed, which keeps one from acting out their dreams. It is possible that because of this paralysis, PLMS can only occur before or after REM sleep.There is cross over between individuals with PLMS and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).
What Is The Cause Of Periodic Leg Movement during Sleep(PLMS)?
While there is no known exact cause of PLMS, researchers are working to find the cause and new treatment options. Currently scientists think that the central nervous system and PLMS could be related, but no studies have proven links between central nervous system abnormalities or disorders and PLMS.
In addition to actual physical movement of the limbs, many people with PLM will experience involuntary tightening or flexing of the muscles, which can be quite painful and disconcerting, and causes the subject to wake up at a high frequency. PLM can occur throughout the night, but in most patients occurs in batches, lasting from 30 minutes to 2 hours on average, with actual movements happening every 5 to 90 seconds during that span. Physical movements are likely to occur in both limbs, while involuntary tightening or flexing of the muscles is more likely to occur in just one limb. PLM typically occurs in the slow-wave phase of sleep just before the deep sleep of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep.
PLM is found with high frequency in those suffering with restless legs syndrome, with as many as 85% of people with RLS also having PLM. Conversely, the number of people with PLM also having RLS is quite low, owing to the fact that PLM is somewhat more common than RLS. Like RLS, PLM can occur in the legs or arms, but most often appears in the legs.
Many underlying medical conditions that cause RLS (restless leg syndrome) may cause PLMS as well. Research shows that anemia, iron deficiency, CNS problems, and kidney disorders may cause RLS and may cause symptoms of PLMS as well. A hereditary link has been seen in people suffering from RLS, the same may be true for people suffering from PLMS. While these conditions can be associated, they are not found to cause one and other, they are only seen as being generally related.
While PLMS by it’s self is not a medically serious condition it can make life unpleasant. Many people who suffer from PLMS often complain of daytime sleepiness, fatigue or feeling unrested when they awake. These symptoms alone can make day-to-day life difficult. If one is unaware of their symptoms, and they are severe enough, PLMS can be a cause of chronic insomnia. PLMS, like RLS, can also be an indicator of more serious underlying medical conditions like diabetes, kidney disease or anemia.
Why We Make Love at Night
Most people make love when they go to bed, which is usually at night. 1 "Sleeping with" someone has thus become a synonym for having sex. Why human sex and sleep are so intertwined, though, remains mysterious: There is no obvious reason why copulation under the covers at night is biologically optimal. Anthropologists note that sexual infidelity can occur opportunistically at any time of day, beginning with the dawn. That is when hunter-gatherers typically leave their huts to urinate. It is also when couples can have quick trysts out of earshot of their sleeping spouses. But while such meetings may accomplish the biological job of fertilization they leave much to be desired from a variety of perspectives—physiological, social, psychological, and ethical.
Why Sex Before Sleep May Be Preferable
Researchers find that most marital sex occurs around bedtime. More than half of sexual encounters occur between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. with a smaller additional peak at 6:00 a.m. when couples are likely to be waking up. 2 Couples are more likely to have sex on weekend nights, suggesting that work schedules dictate patterns of sexual activity to some extent. Avoiding sex on work nights may help employees feel better-rested the following day.
The strong circadian pattern of sexual activity has a fairly simple explanation in terms of availability or opportunity: Married people are more likely to make love at the time they go to bed because they are available to each other. Of course, that begs the question of why married couples generally sleep together in the first place. Even if this question is ignored, one is left with the problem of why sex is more common in the evening than in the morning.
For most mammals, copulation is brief, although there are exceptions, such as in dogs, where mates remain joined due to coital lock that may serve to foil male competitors. The brevity of mating does not interfere with fertilization, however. The same may not be true of upright walkers like humans, for whom gravity would tend to remove ejaculate from the reproductive tract. If so, lying down after sex may increase the chances of conception. Lying down together may also contribute to intimacy and sexual pleasure, which have been thought to affect conception as well.
A couple sleeping together has diverse implications for pair bonding and relationship strength. Of course, there are many possible reasons for sleeping together that have little to do with intimacy: A couple is more effective at conserving heat during the cold of night or in winter, which has survival implications for indigenous peoples like the Inuit. Similarly, two pairs of ears are better than one when it comes to detecting nighttime risks, such as attacks by wild animals or enemies.
On the face of it, though, lying down in close physical contact promotes intimacy by increasing oxytocin production. This is the “cuddling hormone” that promotes relationship strength for many mammals, including powerful mother-infant bonds. 3 Spending time in close proximity thus contributes to the strength of pair bonds—not just in humans but in many other mammals, including the humble prairie vole, in which this has been extensively studied. 4
For pair-bonded species, a close relationship is critical for success in raising offspring. Indeed, females prefer to mate with their partner and may refuse to mate with unfamiliar males.
This pattern applies to humans who satisfy most of the criteria for being a pair-bonded species. 3 In that context, it is understandable that sexual relations occur most often during bedtime hours if prolonged physical contact promotes feelings of closeness and intimacy.
1. Palmer, J. D., Udry, J. R., and Morris, N. M. (1982). Diurnal and weekly, but no rhythms in human copulation. Human Biology, 54, 111-121.
2. Refinetti, R. (2005). Time for sex: Nycthemeral distribution of human sexual behavior. Journal of Circadian Rhythms, DOI: 10.1186/1740-3391-3-4
3. Barber, N. (2002). The Science of Romance. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.
4. Insel, R., and Hulihan, T. (1995). A gender-specific mechanism for pair bonding: Oxytocin and partner preference formation in monogamous voles. Behavioral Neuroscience, 109, 782-789.