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Book: Botany Lab Manual (Morrow) - Biology

Book: Botany Lab Manual (Morrow) - Biology


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Botany is the study of plants and many of the other non-animal groups in the tree of life. With regard to organisms, this course begins with the Cyanobacteria, winds through several groups of unrelated organisms that were all once categorized as fungi, picks apart pieces of the "protista," and finally emerges into Kingdom Plantae. With regard to scientific disciplines, we begin with ecology, transition to a bit of chemistry and cell biology, assemble these building blocks to learn anatomy and physiology, use these characteristics to discuss evolution and systematics, classify our organisms into related groups based on organismal biology, then discover their interrelatedness by returning back to ecology--all with a sprinkle of physical geography to give us some historical context.


Download CBSE Class 12 Lab Manual 2020-21 Session in PDF

CBSE Lab Manual for Class 12 helps the students to visualize the various concepts of the Lab Manual. Furthermore, the syllabus for the practical exam forms the precursor for concepts to be taught in professional courses such as medicine and dentistry. The Lab Manual’s experiments are given here to help students prepare for their practical exam in a better way. For instance, most experiments presented here have content explaining the basis of the experiment.

Moreover, exact steps, processes, procedures, and precautions are explained, so that students can understand them easily. That’s why we are providing a Class 12 Lab Manual for practice purpose to obtain a great score in the final examination. In this article, we have mentioned some best and appropriate lab manuals for CBSE Class 12. You can download the CBSE Lab Manual for Class 12 in PDF Format for better preparation.

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Book: Botany Lab Manual (Morrow) - Biology

Lumen makes significant investments to ensure our digital courseware is accessible, allowing students to learn using superior interactivity, multimedia, and a variety of accommodations for individuals with varying abilities.

PDFs offer an inferior learning experience compared to the richness and interactivity in our digital courseware. A PDF version of the textbook is available as a print alternative. The PDF does not include interactive content such as simulations, videos, and quizzes and is not vetted for accessibility. For these reasons, we do not recommend using the textbook in the PDF form. The offline version should be used as a print backup rather than as the primary textbook.

You can download the PDF using the following link:

To share these files with your students, copy and paste the text and download link above into a page or announcement in your learning management system (Blackboard, Canvas, etc.).


Experiences in Biology eBook

This college prep biology lab covers dissection, microscope experiments, ecology, botany, cellular biology, and zoology.

The laboratory manual Experiences in Biology is a diverse collection of experiments supporting any high school biology text. A few of the experiments require a microscope, several are dissections, other experiments take place out in the garden, and still others are laboratory experiments. You choose your own 12-15 experiments according to interest and equipment on hand.

The manual concentrates on the development of laboratory skills and understanding of some of the underlying themes in biological research. One of these themes is that form and function are related. Another of these principles is the necessity of naming and classifying the biological world.

Topics within the book are: Zoology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Cellular Biology, Botany, and Ecology.


Practical Botany

Practical Botany for Advanced Level and Intermediate Students, Fifth Edition is a five-part laboratory manual covering the syllabuses in Botany of the advanced level students and other examinations of similar standard. This laboratory manual must be used in conjunction with textbooks of botany. The Introduction presents general instructions for practical work and for the keeping of practical notebooks and a list of apparatus and instruments required, as well as a summary of the characteristics of living organisms, the differences between plants and animals and the principles of plant classification. Part I describes the features and methods of use of the microscope, while Part II contains intensive discussions on the evaluation of the morphological, cytological, and histological aspects of plants. The remaining parts cover the biochemical, physiological, and genetic aspects of the plant experiments. This book is directed toward advanced and intermediate level botany teachers and students.

Practical Botany for Advanced Level and Intermediate Students, Fifth Edition is a five-part laboratory manual covering the syllabuses in Botany of the advanced level students and other examinations of similar standard. This laboratory manual must be used in conjunction with textbooks of botany. The Introduction presents general instructions for practical work and for the keeping of practical notebooks and a list of apparatus and instruments required, as well as a summary of the characteristics of living organisms, the differences between plants and animals and the principles of plant classification. Part I describes the features and methods of use of the microscope, while Part II contains intensive discussions on the evaluation of the morphological, cytological, and histological aspects of plants. The remaining parts cover the biochemical, physiological, and genetic aspects of the plant experiments. This book is directed toward advanced and intermediate level botany teachers and students.


Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology

Under the vast umbrella of Plant Sciences resides a plethora of highly specialized fields. Botanists, agronomists, horticulturists, geneticists, and physiologists each employ a different approach to the study of plants and each for a different end goal. Yet all will find themselves in the laboratory engaging in what can broadly be termed biotechnology.

Addressing a wide variety of related topics, Plant Tissue Culture, Development, and Biotechnology gives the practical and technical knowledge needed to train the next generation of plant scientists regardless of their ultimate specialization. With the detailed perspectives and hands-on training signature to the authors’ previous bestselling books, Plant Development and Biotechnology and Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, this book discusses relevant concepts supported by demonstrative laboratory experiments. It provides critical thinking questions, concept boxes highlighting important ideas, and procedure boxes giving precise instruction for experiments, including step-by-step procedures, such as the proper microscope use with digital photography, along with anticipated results, and a list of materials needed to perform them.

Integrating traditional plant sciences with recent advances in plant tissue culture, development, and biotechnology, chapters address germplasm preservation, plant growth regulators, embryo rescue, micropropagation of roses, haploid cultures, and transformation of meristems. Going beyond the scope of a simple laboratory manual, this book also considers special topics such as copyrights, patents, legalities, trade secrets, and the business of biotechnology.

Focusing on plant culture development and its applications in biotechnology across a myriad of plant science specialties, this text uses a broad range of species and practical laboratory exercises to make it useful for anyone engaged in the plant sciences.


Plant Biology A Text-book of Elementary Botany arranged for Modern Methods of Teaching Laboratory and Field Manual of Botany Studies in Plant Life Elementary Botany Introduction to Elementary Botany Our Woodlands, Heaths and Hedges

THE advocates of an exclusively experimental course of study in the natural sciences are confronted with the difficulty of time limitations, so that in practice it becomes necessary to strike a balance between lecture and practical work. Dr. Cavers has indicated in “Plant Biology” the lines of work that he has found successful with training-college students, in which the training is almost entirely derived from observation and experiment. The foundation of the course consists of experiments-of which about three hundred and fifty are outlined in connection with the nature and function of parts of the flowering plant so far as possible the bean plant is used as the type. Flower and soil, biology and ecology provide a subsidiary section. The course differs mainly from ordinary practice in excluding the examination of selected types from the main groups and in the general omission of flowerless plants. With regard to the composition of the subject-matter, the author deserves great commendation the arrangement is well planned, the experiments are generally simple and practicable, and the information is contrived to make the student think. A series of questions at the end of each chapter can be used o either by the student or his instructor to gauge the progress that is being made. The appendices also contain much useful matter hints on practical work refer to special opportunities afforded month by month a summary of Engler's system of classification is provided, and a glossary of botanical terms.

Plant Biology. A Text-book of Elementary Botany arranged for Modern Methods of Teaching.

By Dr. F. Cavers. Pp. xvi + 460. (Cambridge: University Tutorial Press, 1907.) Price 3s. 6d.

Laboratory and Field Manual of Botany.

By J. Y. Bergen B. M. Davis. Pp. viii + 257. (Boston and London: Ginn and Co., n.d.) Price 4s. 6d.

By J. Adams. Pp. v + 179. (Dublin and Belfast: Fallen and Co., Ltd., n.d.)

By M. A. Liversidge. Pp. 128. (London: Blackie and Son, Ltd., 1907.) Price 1s. 6d. net.

Introduction to Elementary Botany.

By Charlotte L. Laurie. Pp. viii + 84. (London: Allman and Son, Ltd., n.d.) Price 1s. net.

Our Woodlands, Heaths and Hedges.

By W. S. Coleman. Pp. viii + 141 with 8 plates. New edition, entirely reset. (London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1907.) Price 1s.


Book: Botany Lab Manual (Morrow) - Biology

radial and tangential ) of wood.

Be sure you can recognize and identify bark, wood, vascular cambium, heartwood, sapwood annual rings, spring wood, summer wood, rays, pores, knots and other macroscopic features. I have provided links to illustrations of wood blocks.

IV. Microscopic Observations - Vascular Cambium and 2 o Tissues

After you understand the macroscopic features of woody plants, move on and examine microscopically the thin sections of young woody twigs. Especially when young, much that you see should be very similar to the primary stem tissues that you examined last week. Usually it is fairly easy to recognize the pith in the center and the cortex near the outside in these transverse sections of young stems.

Depending on the age of the woody stem, the epidermis may be present and intact, present and disrupted, or lost, perhaps along with some of the cortex. Often fibers of the bundle cap still mark the outer boundry of the primary phloem clearly. The primary xylem will be the innermost xylem, and it is often appears fairly distinct as it protrudes into the pith.

If you compare twigs that are 1 year old with those that are 2 and 3 years old, you can see a progressive increase in size as additional annual rings of xylem are added. Note also, the outer tissues becoming compressed, disrupted, and eventually lost.

Slide of sections of twigs of Tilia, Oak, Pine and several other woody species are available for study. I have provided links to many illustrations of sections of woody twigs.

After you feel comfortable locating the primary and secondary tissues in transverse sections of young stems, examine in detail wood (secondary xylem) sectioned in transverse, radial and tangential cuts. Compare the appearance of these cuts in Oak (hardwood) and Pine (softwood). Learn to recognize the kind of section (note especially the appearance of the rays) Focus your attention on identifying tissues by their location, cell types and characteristic appearance. Visualize how sections of stems would be positioned in the intact stem, and try to relate transverse (c.s.) with longitidinal (radial and tangential) sections. Learn to distinguish between (1) hardwoods and softwoods, (2) transverse, radial and tangential sections. I have provided links to illustrations of sections of wood and the appearance of cells types.

V. Microscopic Observations - Cork Cambium and Periderm

General Information

  1. Key out a woody twig
  2. Determine the age of a woody branch by counting rings of bud scale scars
  3. Determine the age of x.s. of woody stem by counting annual rings
  4. Locate orientation of "center of tree" by relative position of spring and summer wood
  5. Distinguish transverse, radial and tangential cuts (based largely on apparance of rays)
  6. Distinguish between nonporous, ring porous and diffuse porous woods
  7. Distinguish between hardwood (they have tracheids, vessels and fibers) and softwood (tracheids)
  8. Be able to identify cell types (ray initial, tracheid, vessel, etc.)

Assignment for Laboratory Exercise 5 2 o Growth and Woody Stems

1. Examine the materials on display in the room. These will
include tree trunks, samples of bark and wood, preserved
specimens, wall charts, stereo models of stems, microscope
slides, photographs and electron micrographs of woody stems.

2. Label Figure 5.1 Woody Twig.

3. Sketch vegetative and flowering buds of Lilac or Forsythia

4. Complete the key to plants in the winter condition.

5. Label Figure 5.2 Woody Stem and answer the questions in part
III based on the woody stems you observe.

6. Examine transverse sections of young woody stems of hardwood
and softwood species and label Figures 5.5 and 5.6.

7. Sketch representative xylem cell types in Table 5.2 Xylem
Cell Types

8. Examine transverse, tangential and radial sections of wood
of a hardwood and softwood species. Label Figure 5.7.


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Book: Botany Lab Manual (Morrow) - Biology

I selected links with images and information related closely to the observations described in lab Exercise 3 (Plant Roots) of your botany lab manual. Preview these resources as you prepare for the laboratory exercise and review these resources as you write your lab reports and study for tests.

  1. Adventitious root
  2. Branch (lateral) root
  3. Casparian strip
  4. Cell plate (in telophase stage of mitotic cell)
  5. Nucleus of a root hair
  6. Pericycle
  7. Phloem in Smilax root
  8. Prophase nucleus of mitosis
  9. Vessel element

I. DIVERSITY AND ADAPTATIONS OF ROOTS

II. ROOTS OF ECONOMIC PLANTS - ROOT CROPS

III. ROOT GROWTH

Bring the radish seedlings that you germinated to this lab!

Work with the radish seedlings that you started at home and brought with you to this lab. Keep the Petri dishes containing the seedlings covered whenever possible. Don't leave the roots of a seedling exposed for more than the few seconds needed to mark them or measure them.

Select seedlings with roots that are straight and approximately 1 to 3 cm in length. Using a marker with silk threads spaced uniformly 1 mm apart, apply ink marks to the tip of the root of several radish seedlings. Try to get one ink mark as near the tip of the root as possible, with four or more additional ink marks spaced uniformly beyond.

Return the marked roots to the Petri dish as soon as possible. Take care that the ink does not blur.


Watch the video: Biology practical. 9th biology practical. prepare slide of onion epidermis (June 2022).